microbiome, nutrition, probiotics, research, weight loss

The Ultimate Guide to What Probiotics Are Supposed to Do for Health + Weight Loss

Have you been told that probiotics will help you?  Just like anti-biotics are effective treatments for specific diseases and illnesses, each larger group of pro-biotics and their smaller groups of strains have clinically proven purposes for health, disease prevention, and even weight loss.

Probiotics + Weight Loss Goal = Success!

real food, weight loss, healthy diet, weight loss

The connection between the gut microbiome and health has been well established with evidence-based research and longer term clinical studies. It’s common to see headlines like these daily in news feeds:

Despite all this research and positive press about using probiotics to help reduce symptoms-even get to the root cause of a persistent health issue, many people are leery of trying.

One family friend I’ve spoken with about probiotics said she has had physicians recommend “more fiber, probiotics,” which would work for a month or two and then the debilitating pain of IBS would come back.

I started thinking, “If we take certain anti-biotics to treat specific strains of pathogenic bacteria like E Coli or diseases, with some being more effective than another, why couldn’t we apply the same methodology to potential pro-biotic therapies?”

Where’s the research linking a common issue to probiotic strains so that we know which bacteria (or good yeast) will help get to the root cause of an issue for better health- or even boost weight loss?

Again, just like the beneficial bacteria outnumber each person’s DNA 10:1, surely that points to not every bacteria performing the same function since they are alive in every different part of our body!

I honed in my research skills and pushed past the known information on efficacy and quality of probiotics in order to apply specific probiotic strains to purpose.  Dr. David Williams states, “My interpretation of the research to date has convinced me that it’s not the total number of bacteria in a product that is most important; it’s the number of different strains of bacteria it includes.” [9]

His thoughts on why groupings of probiotic strains are important:

“Because the different strains of probiotic bacteria have slightly different functions and are concentrated in various places along the digestive tract, probiotic supplements that contain multiple strains tend to be more effective overall than products containing an extremely high concentration of just one or two strains. This is because many strains work synergistically to influence our health. The whole literally is greater than the sum of its parts.”

Probiotic classification starts with the largest group called the Genus, which is then categorized into Species, which then have specific, single Strains. Therefore, each of these main Genu groups has the same core genes:

  1. Bacillus
  2. Bifidobacterium
  3. Lactobacillus
  4. Saccharomyces
  5. Streptococcus [10]

Short cut question: Is there a main group of probiotic strains that are always effective or important for overall health?  Dr. Mercola says, yes to 3 strains of Lactobacillus and 2 of Bifidobacterium:

“There’s a handful of probiotic strains that I believe belong in any good probiotic supplement. I consider them foundational probiotic bacterial strains because of their far-reaching potential benefits for most people.”

Regardless of diet, beneficial bacteria called probiotics combat a whole host of environmental- even psychological and biological, factors that assault your body on a daily basis.  Per Dr. Mercola, processed flour and sugar foods, chlorinated and added fluoride in water, common over the counter medications and antibiotic use, herbicides, NSAIDS, stress, and pollution all negatively influence the balance of beneficial and pathogenic bacteria within the body.

If you have a specific health condition that causes you discomfort and interrupts your daily life often enough that you have to pay attention to lifestyle activities or foods, then I suggest you include strain specific probiotics in order to improve your quality of life. Guaranteed that you’ll see some weight loss results, too, because weight gain is usually a symptom of the real cause.

I know many people have IBS and I will address the research specific to that health journey in another post.  Subscribe by email for updates!

But what if you are healthy-ish? You have the normal daily aches and sometimes feel blah. That’s “normal,” right? Nope.

The medical community is finding that Hippocrates is still right: “All disease begins in the gut.”  What may seem like normal for our overworked and exhausted society, which is inundated with that above list of out-of-your-control factors, is eroding the fundamental health of your gut.  The “gut” is a simplified term for the microbiome of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria alive and active within all of your body’s organs.

The bacteria in your body micromanage every aspect of your life, not just health and longevity of life. There is an intricate balance between the beneficial bacteria and the pathogenic bacteria, which have a say in:

  • how you feel,
  • sleep,
  • illness prevalence,
  • what you want to eat,
  • how often you poop,
  • even how your body (delegates) nutrient use within your brain for thought patterns and memory recall.

There are specific macro and micro nutrients every body definitively requires for daily living and longevity.  Furthermore, if there is an overload of toxins coupled with lacks of nutrients, you are setting yourself up for gut troubles.

Can you live without food and water? Nope. Starvation will kill you. It will also really mess with your food intake even after you have choices offered again (you can read about that famous study here).

There’s a battle inside your digestive system for control over your food’s energy and there are so many factors that can tip the scales toward weighty problems or a healthy longevity.  Dr. Axe explains the relationship between the gut and health as:

“It’s been said by some researchers that up to 90 percent of all diseases can be traced in some way back to the gut and health of the microbiome. Believe it or not, your microbiome is home to trillions of microbes, diverse organisms that help govern nearly every function of the human body in some way…. Throughout our lives, we help shape our own microbiomes — plus they adapt to changes in our environment. For example, the foods you eat, how you sleep, the amount of bacteria you’re exposed to on a daily basis and the level of stress you live with all help establish the state of your microbiota.”

Over time, the majority of people in our era will suffer from these effects of malnourishment and environmental toxin build up, causing something called “leaky gut.”

Feelings of fatigue, nausea, irritability, inability to eat certain foods, increased sickness, and a list of other “I just don’t feel well” symptoms have been related back to the root cause of an unhealthy gut.

Specifically, the gut lining becomes permeable, causing toxins and food and even nutrients to leak out of the barrier and into the bloodstream instead.  The wine skin-like sack capability of your stomach, which is meant solely to keep your food within your digestive system, succumbs to toxins and the effects of a higher ratio of disease promoting, pathogenic bacteria residing in your body. When that happens, the pathogenic bacteria dominate the control panel of your genes. Disease, anyone?

Good news! That’s why we are talking about probiotics for health (and to Reset Your Weight).  That list of out-of-your-control factors can be influenced by these beneficial buggers-and quicker than you might think.  Healing the gut lining and establishing a healthy gut microbiome is key to health, happiness, and weight loss.

In 2013, Scientific American published one of my most favorite posts: The Gut’s Microbiome Changes Rapidly with Diet.  Groundbreaking research revealed then (and continues to do so in 2017) that the gut changes within hours based on diet. HOURS, people, HOURS!

In fact, analyzing the root of the majority of outward weight problems reveals three major issues wreaking havoc inside the body: a handy acronym of H.I.M:

H= Hormonal imbalances

I= Inflammation, chronic and systemic

M= Metabolism and digestive issues

Inflammation is pretty much the number one underlying cause for weight issues, gut issues, brain fog and mental health issues, and disease. Dr. Lori Shemek, author of How To Fight FATflammation, is the “leading authority on inflammation” and one of her key ways “to beat FATflammation” is through maintaining a healthy gut: “An unhealthy digestive tract is an inflamed digestive tract” (99).

Dr. Lori was singing my tune! But, she’s not the only one who recognizes and educates people about the significance of a healthy gut microbiome.  Dr. Oz, Dr. Axe, Dr. Will Cole, Brenda Watson, Dr. Mary Hyman, Dr. Perlmutter, Dr. Amy Meyers, JJ Virgin, Dr. Mercola, and many more are all leading MDs who advocate for a real food approach to wellness using functional medicine and supplementation to correct microbiome issues.

What is the big link between your food choices and an inflamed digestive tract? Fiber. Fiber is key to a healthy microbiome because it feeds the beneficial bacteria in your gut.  Studies show that you should aim for 35 grams of fiber each day:

“It provides bulk in the diet, which helps promote healthy gastrointestinal function and contributes to a feeling of fullness after eating. A high fiber diet may also assist in weight management, reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes, and help improve blood sugar levels in people with diabetes” [2].

The average person in America eat about 13-16 grams each day of fiber from good sources like beans, 100% whole grains, veggies, fruit, and nuts [3]. How many of these high fiber foods do you eat every daily in adequate quantities? Read this post by Eating Well for ideas on how to make higher fiber swaps.

Keep in mind that if you are also consistently eating foods high in any type of sugar or flour, it is counterproductive to eating “just a little” fiber; pathogenic bacteria push, shove, overcrowd, and KILL the fiber-loving beneficial bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria do not play nice on the playground and they do not leave survivors:

“Fiber has long been linked to better health, but new research shows how the gut microbiota might play a role in this pattern…. Another recent study shows that when microbes are starved of fiber, they can start to feed on the protective mucus lining of the gut, possibly triggering inflammation and disease” [1].

Pathogenic bacteria thrive and multiply like crazy when you add any form of sugar into your system; and since we know that sugar is as addictive of a substance as crack (opioid drugs), then you might want to take note of this next fact:

The average American consumes 94 grams of sugar PER DAY [4].

Let that sink in. Your comfort foods, normal daily meals and snacks, and other lifestyle habits all play a huge part in determining the diversity and strength of the bacteria within your digestive system, rate of metabolism, and your body’s communication system (which is run by hormones).

Before you just throw in the towel at this seemingly unobtainable health thing, I will say this: “May the odds be ever in your favor.” Did you know that probiotics can control your appetite? Wait, it’s not all willpower? Nope! (I hear rejoicing.)

A healthy gut produces almost 90% of your body’s hormones. Hormones control your mood, blood sugar levels, and therefore the master hunger switches of insulin and ghrelin that control your cravings.  For instance, “The more bifidobacteria and other good gut flora you have, the more satiation hormones they will create in response to a meal” [6].

Unfortunately, many of us (roughly 70% of the population) have a gut system that is out of balance; the pathogenic bacteria and yeast have messed up and significantly decreased hormone production, which literally short circuits your body’s communication system. Instead, they drive your thoughts and food choices to their preferred meal: sugar, in any form.

With the modern diet of processed foods and simple carbohydrates, many people have an overgrowth of yeast and fungus that drives their food choices to even more sugar. Learn more about SIBO by Dr. Will Cole.

Body Ecology explained a 2104 study published in BioEssays, which detailed how the gut and cravings are intricately linked and hijacked by pathogenic bacteria in an imbalanced gut:

“Researchers from the University of New Mexico, Arizona State University, and UC San Francisco put their heads together and concluded that gut microbes can dictate human eating behavior and choices.

“Researchers say our gut bacteria are “manipulative” and may be responsible for influencing the body to eat certain foods by releasing signaling molecules in the gut, but the relationship goes both ways.

“We can also influence our inner ecosystem by changing what we eat so that our bacteria begin to crave the right foods. Researchers saw a noticeable effect on the gut microbiome within 24 hours of a diet change.” [5]

Another health blogger tackled the subject of appetite control via probiotics and cited even more of this same study:

“Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.” [7]

In 2015, The Smithsonian Magazine discussed how one clinical study observed that within 20 minutes of feeding bacteria the nutrients they needed to grow, the bacteria then were able to produce new proteins that could inhibit appetite.  The same researcher had previously provided “evidence of a stomach bacterium, Helicobacter pylori,” that curbed appetite [8]. Sign me up for that beneficial bacteria! (Oh wait, just drink the fizzy fermented tea drink called Kombucha…)

All this research is the reason for this Ultimate Guide to What Probiotics Are Supposed to Do for Health + Weight Loss.  Let’s spread the truth that, indeed, probiotics help curb appetite, balance hormones, make you happy, decrease pathogenic bacteria that promote disease, and keep your body at its optimal weight!

What’s more is that when you not only consume targeted probiotic combinations but also take the time to heal the whole “leaky gut” digestive system, the end result is most often:

  • sustainable weight loss,
  • more energy and better sleep,
  • improved cognition and mood,
  • decreased chronic inflammation,
  • stronger immune system and toxin removal
  • improved digestion and increased metabolic rate
  • reduced belly bloat and fat cell shrinkage
  • balanced hormones (which are, in essence, in control of your body’s communication network),
  • increased nutrient absorption (so you eat less)

Since most people will rejoice at this amazing list of end results, let’s figure out what probiotics are supposed to do at each stage of healing a leaky gut. There is a “4 R” protocol that is widely accepted as an excellent gut rebuilding regime that uses probiotics as a key player in establishing a healthy gut microbiome:

Remove           toxins and stress

Replace            with nutrition (healing foods)

Repair              with supplements

Rebalance        with probiotics

There are probiotics that remove toxins and decrease stress. There are healing foods that are sources of prebiotics (food for probiotics) as well as probiotics.  There are probiotics that repair the gut lining, restore proper acidity/ alkalinity levels, and even repair reflux damage and the effects of inflammation.

Lastly, there is a plethora of probiotics in supplement form and in real foods to rebalance hormones and digestion, increase metabolism, add diversity, and rebalance the dominant bacterial genus groups for sustainable health and weight. Sign me up!

If you want to target one aspect of the healing process or issue that you struggle with the most, understanding the beneficial bacteria’s Genus purpose and Strain combinations will save you time and money.  Armed with knowledge, most are encouraged and more willing to be consistent and give it a go to achieve goals:

“The general mechanisms of probiotics can be divided into three main categories: normalization of the intestinal microbiota, modulation of the immune response, and metabolic effects” [39].

I would like to acknowledge Dr. Axe’s post, Top 10 Leaky Gut Supplements, for his knowledge and the plethora of strain specific research links he provided.  All other research is included in the References section below.

Save this list! Grab your free PDF download: The Ultimate Guide to Probiotics for Health and Weight Loss

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Probiotics that remove toxins and effects of stress:

  • Destroy pathogenic bacteria
    • Bifidobacterium bifidum [12]
    • Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 [16]
    • Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 [25]
    • acidophilus [32]
    • Saccharomyces boulardii [30]
    • Lactobacillus helveticus [34]
    • Lactobacillus plantarum [36]
    • Lactobacillus plantarum [36]
    • Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus [41]
    • Lactobacillus salivarius [42]
    • Lactobacillus sakei [54]
  • Inhibit disease, decrease toxicity
    • Bifidobacterium [17]
    • Bifidobacterium longum [13]
    • reuteri, L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum [20]
    • Lactobacillus casei, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, and L. pentosus [20]
    • acidophilus [27]
    • Bifidobacterium Lactis [35]
    • Bifidobacterium infantis [40]
    • Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus [41]
    • Lactobacillus salivarius [42]
    • Streptococcus thermophiles [43]
    • Lactobacillus curvatus [53]
    • Lactobacillus sakei [54]
    • Leuconostoc fallax [56]
  • Reduce stress response
    • rhamnosus (JB-1) [28]
  • Eliminate waste
    • Bacillus coagulans (stool frequency) [31]
    • Bifidobacterium Lactis [35]
  • Decrease inflammation
    • Akkermansia muciniphila [18]
    • Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03) [17]
    • Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 [29]
    • Saccharomyces boulardii [30]
    • Bifidobacterium longum [33]
    • Lactobacillus helveticus [34]
    • Bifidobacterium Lactis [35]
    • Lactobacillus plantarum [36]
    • Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus [41]
    • boulardiiBiocodex (yeast) [46]
    • rhamnosusGG [46]

 

Probiotics that Replace: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium

  • Intestinal strength and immunity
    • Akkermansia muciniphila [18]
    • Lactobacillus plantarum [11]
    • Bifidobacterium breve [14]
    • Lactobacillus rhamnosus [15]
    • Lactobacillus paracasei (LC9) [19]
    • Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LC4) [19]
    • Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 and L. brevis LB32 [22]
    • Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 [25]
    • Lactobacillus casei [26]
    • Acidophilus [32]
    • Bifidobacterium longum [33]
    • Saccharomyces boulardii [30]
    • Lactobacillus helveticus[34]
    • Bifidobacterium bifidum [37]
    • Bifidobacterium breve [38]
    • Bifidobacterium lactis
    • plantarumK21 [46]
  • Increase nutrient absorption and production
    • Bacillus coagulans [31]
    • Acidophilus [32]
    • Lactobacillus helveticus [34]
    • Bifidobacterium bifidum [37]
    • Bifidobacterium infantis [40]

 

Probiotics that Repair: Lactobacillus

  • Repair gut lining
    • Akkermansia muciniphila [18]
    • Acidophilus [32]
    • Saccharomyces boulardii [30]
    • Lactobacillus helveticus [34]
  • Increase bile acids levels
    • Lactobacillus pentosus LP05 + L. brevis LB32 [22]
    • Bacillus coagulans [31]
    • Lactobacillus salivarius [42]
  • Metabolic repair, decrease obesity (not including IBS research)
    • Akkermansia muciniphila [18]
    • Lactobacillus helveticus [34]
    • Bifidobacterium Lactis [35]
    • Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765
    • plantarum + L. curvatus [47]
    • Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 [48]

 

Probiotics that Rebalance: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium

  • Hormone production
    • acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus [23]
    • VSL#3 (Streptococcus thermophiles, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus) [24]
    • helveticus R0052 + B. longum R0175 [45]
  • Restore alkalinity and balance acidity
    • Bacillus coagulans [31]
    • Acidophilus [32]
    • Lactobacillus salivarius [42]
    • Streptococcus thermophiles [43]
  • Emotional regulation
    • rhamnosus (JB-1) [28]
    • Lactobacillus helveticus + Bifidobacterium longum
  • Maintain gut balance
    • Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03) [17]
    • Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LC4) [19]
    • Lactobacillus paracasei (LC9) [19]
    • Lactobacillus plantarum [36]
    • Bifidobacterium bifidum [37]
    • Bifidobacterium infantis [40]
    • Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM [32]
    • Bifidobacterium lactis

 

Conclusion

Probiotics can be very powerful for weight loss and health. Finding a good source of specific beneficial bacteria for your goals will save you both time and money.  Fortunately, many of the larger groups of bacteria simultaneously help with many issues in each of the gut healing categories.

The best part about probiotics is their availability.  Most of these strains and combinations are lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB), found in fermented foods like sauerkraut, kimchi, pickles, and miso:

“The most common LAB involved in the fermentation of dairy are members of the genera Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuonostoc, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. Bifidobacteria are also included in fermented milk products.4 Most yoghurt, the fermented dairy product people know best, is produced with a culture of L. delbrueckii subp. bulgaricus and S. thermophiles.” [49]

Cultured yogurt products are predominately inoculated with a variety of Lactobacillus strains:

“Although classic yogurt is produced with a thermophilic protosymbiotic culture of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the so-called yogurt mild is produced with a thermophilic culture of S. thermophilus and a Lactobacillus species, usually L. acidophilus.” [50]

Probiotic Low Fat Plain KefirFermented milk kefir contain L. acidophilus, L. casei, and L. reuteri strains [50], and is an easy food to add to smoothies. Or, splash it into cereal milk to increase the diversity of probiotics into any diet while you get used to the tarter flavor.

The classic fermented sauerkraut is a powerhouse of nutrition and probiotics.  Cabbage is one of nature’s multi-vitamins and then combined with the process of fermentation, you quite literally get a superfood: “2 ounces of home fermented sauerkraut had more probiotics than a bottle of 100 count probiotic capsules” [51].

Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride, the neurologist who is well known for developing the GAPS Diet, elaborated:

“With every mouthful of sauerkraut you’re consuming billions of beneficial microbes which will be killing the pathogens in your gut driving them out and replenishing the beneficial flora in your digestive tract,” specifically lactobacilli [51].

Even in commercially produced sauerkraut there is a wide range of diversity in the probiotic strains, with the main four species of lactic acid bacteria being Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum (predominating strain after 2 week fermentation period), Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis;  As identification technology advances, even more strains have been repeatedly found in commercially fermented kraut, with variation dependent on the concentration of salt [52].

Dr. Axe explains that “lactic acid is a natural preservative that inhibits harmful bacteria growth.” In general, most fermented fruits and vegetables contain these major strains of lactic acid bacteria created during the process of fermentation from adding salt and water to the vegetable:

  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • pentosus
  • brevis
  • acidophilus
  • fermentum
  • Leuconostoc fallax [56]
  • mesenteroides [55]

Fermented Kombucha Tea is a popular probiotic drink for incorporating prominent Lactobacillus [57] probiotics into your day.  There is a plethora of commercially brewed flavors to sample and then replicate at home.  The price point of the beverage usually is in relation to the length of brew, which impacts the potency and combination of bacteria and beneficial yeast for health.  Check out Food Renegades’s post on Kombucha for a detailed explanation.

Incorporating fermented foods into your meals each day not only heals and repairs leaky gut, it will transform your health and weight.  Dr. Axe gives the overall picture:

“After eating foods like sauerkraut that provide probiotics, these gut bugs take up residence on the lining and folds of your intestinal walls, where they communicate with your brain via the vagus nerve. They also act like your first line of defense against various harmful bacteria or toxins that enter your body.

“Some beneficial probiotic bacteria found in sauerkraut and other cultured veggies are more or less permanent residents because they form long-lasting colonies. Others come and go more quickly but still have important anti-inflammatory effects.”

 

References

[1] https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fiber-famished-gut-microbes-linked-to-poor-health1/

[2] https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/80400530/pdf/DBrief/12_fiber_intake_0910.pdf

[3] https://www.today.com/health/americans-need-more-fiber-their-diets-wbna15938650

[4] https://www.cbsnews.com/news/just-how-much-sugar-do-americans-consume-its-complicated/

[5] https://bodyecology.com/articles/natural_ways_curb_your_appetite.php

[6] http://paleoforwomen.com/how-probiotics-put-an-end-to-my-sugar-cravings/

[7] http://healinggourmet.com/digestive-health-and-diet/control-appetite-probiotics/

[8] http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/gut-bacteria-may-be-controlling-your-appetite-180957389/

[9] https://www.drdavidwilliams.com/how-to-choose-the-best-probiotic-supplement

[10] http://www.powerofprobiotics.com/Probiotics-classification.html

[11] https://www.drperlmutter.com/consider-lactobacillus-plantarum/

[12] http://aem.asm.org/content/77/4/1335.abstract

[13] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8358717

[14] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19685085

[15] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19584499

[16] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730335

[17] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27782071

http://robdunnlab.com/projects/invisible-life/akkermansia/

[18] http://www.probioticscenter.org/probiotics-weight-loss-bacterium-curbs-obesity/#

http://www.ubiomeblog.com/akkermansiamuciniphila/

http://time.com/3936636/diet-gut-bacteria/

[19] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25438612

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155824/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15985548/

[20] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27682086

[21] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28401466

[22] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25793099

[23] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850967

[24] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23836895https://vsl3.com/about-vsl/

[25] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27713730

[26] http://jn.nutrition.org/content/137/3/791S.long

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813825/

[27] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Effect+of+fermented+milk+(yogurt)+containing+Lactobacillus+acidophilus+L1+on+serum+cholesterol+in+hypercholesterolemic+humans

[28] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Ingestion+of+Lactobacillus+strain+regulates+emotional+behavior+and+central+GABA+receptor+expression+in+a+mouse+via+the+vagus+nerve ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23139216

[29] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Bacillus+coagulans%3A+a+viable+adjunct+therapy+for+relieving+symptoms+of+rheumatoid+arthritis+according+to+a+randomized%2C+controlled+trial

[30] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=A+pilot+trial+of+Saccharomyces+boulardii+in+ulcerative+colitis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296087/

http://www.healthline.com/health/what-yeast-is-good-for-the-gut

[31] http://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2009/1/optimize-digestive-health/page-01

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726964/

[32] http://probiotics.org/l-acidohilus-benefits/

[33]  http://www.livestrong.com/article/375423-what-is-bifidobacterium-longum/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350908/

[34] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500876/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4081610/

[35] http://probiotics.org/bifidobacterium-lactis/

http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/

bifidobacterium-bifidum-the-health-benefits-of-probiotics/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2453197/

http://www.livestrong.com/article/276997-bifidobacterium-lactis-benefits/

https://www.optibacprobiotics.co.uk/blog/2015/10/largest-ever-probiotic-clinical-trial-supports-use-of-b-lactis-bb12-regularity

http://textbookofbacteriology.net/featured_microbe.html

https://nootriment.com/lactobacillus-lactis/

[36] https://bodyecology.com/articles/lactobacillus_plantarum_benefits.php

http://probiotics.org/l-plantarum/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419998/

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/73/2/380s.full

[37] http://www.livestrong.com/article/315573-what-are-the-benefits-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum/

[38] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15491374

http://www.probiotics-lovethatbug.com/bifidobacterium-breve.html

[39] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897872/

[40] https://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/bifidobacterium-infantis-the-health-benefits-of-probiotics/

[41] http://probiotics.org/lactobacillus-bulgaricus/

[42] http://probiotics.org/l-salivarius/

[43] https://nootriment.com/lactobacillus-bulgaricus-streptococcus-thermophilus/  

[45] http://www.probion.com/files/2012/01/TM_Bl-04_June20101

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436726

[46] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4543192/table/T1/

[47] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23512789

[48] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25062610

[49] https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/everything-you-always-wanted-to-know-about-fermented-foods/

[50] http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/73/2/374s.full

[51] http://www.nourishingplot.com/2014/06/21/sauerkraut-test-divulges-shocking-probiotic-count/

[52] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2168044/

http://aem.asm.org/content/68/11/5452.full

[53] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23357316

[54] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800885

[55] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4058509/

[56] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4058509/

[57] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290641

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